Our shoulder is made up of three bones: The shoulder blade, the collarbone, and the upper arm bone or humerus. The shoulder has a ball-and-socket joint. The round head of the upper arm bone fits into the socket. Connective tissue (shoulder capsule) surrounds the shoulder joint. It is the synovial fluid that reduces the friction in the joint and makes the joint mobile.
Though it is often overlooked, musculoskeletal diseases are one of the most common side effects in patients with diabetes. Musculoskeletal ailments associated with diabetes are strong enough to inflict both physical and psychological harm. Frozen shoulder (also referred to as adhesive capsulitis) occurs when the ligaments around the shoulder joint swell and become stiff. The affected shoulder joint gradually loses mobility over a period of time, until the joint becomes stiff or “frozen”. Due to inflammation and swelling present in the shoulder, normal healing becomes hard and leads to shoulder getting stiff. As a result of inflammation and stiffness, it would be painful to carryout activities of daily living. Seemingly simple tasks such as buttoning the shirt and reaching into an overhead bin can be difficult. Among the various musculoskeletal conditions associated with diabetes, frozen shoulder is one of the most common complaints.